Enrofloxacin for Dogs - Dosage, Uses and Side Effects
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Enrofloxacin is an antibiotic bactericidal agent, specifically of the fluoroquinolone group. It is used for the treatment of respiratory, digestive and urinary bacterial infections, among others. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic sold in the US under the brand name Baytril, although it can be found in generic form under the name EnroMed 100. Due to its broad spectrum of activity, it is used to treat infections caused by both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Currently, it is marketed for use in dogs in the form of tablets and as an injectable solution.
If you want to know more about enrofloxacin for dogs, AnimalWised explains the dosage, uses and side effects of Baytril for dogs. We should note it is a prescription medication and requires veterinary prescription.
What is enrofloxacin for dogs?
Enrofloxacin is an antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone family that is used in dogs and other animal species to treat bacterial infections. Specifically, it is an antimicrobial drug with a bactericidal effect. This means its effect is irreversible as it causes the death of bacteria. This is opposed to antimicrobials with a bacteriostatic effect, which inhibit the growth of bacteria, but do not kill them .
Enrofloxacin for dogs can be found in two different preparations:
- Tablets: for oral administration.
- Injectable solution: for administration intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
Baytril is sold to different animals in various presentations. For example, you can find an antibiotic dropper for birds which would not be suitable for use in canines.
Uses of enrofloxacin for dogs
Due to its broad spectrum of activity, enrofloxacin is used to treat various bacterial infections. These include both individual and mixed infections. These can affect the following biological systems:
- Respiratory system
- Digestive system
- Urinary system
- External ear
Specifically, enrofloxacin is used to treat infections caused by:
- Gram negative bacteria: such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp , Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp, Klebsiella spp, Bordetella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Proteus spp.
- Gram-positive bacteria: such as Staphylococcus spp.
Generally, it is used as monotherapy. The combination with other active ingredients has not been shown to provide synergistic action.
Enrofloxacin dosage for Dogs
As we mentioned at the beginning of the article, enrofloxacin is available in tablet and injectable solution preparations. To calculate the dose of enrofloxacin in dogs, it is necessary to take into account its preparation and its route of administration.
Baytril tablets dosage for dogs
The oral dose will be 5 to 20 mg of enrofloxacin per kg of the dog's weight (2.27 to 9.07 mg/lb). This will be administered once a day for 5 consecutive days. However, in the case of chronic and serious illnesses, the treatment can be extended up to 10 days. Dogs which have been administered higher doses will need careful monitoring for any adverse side effects (see below).
To administer the appropriate dose, it is important to determine the weight of the animal as accurately as possible. In this way, we will avoid the risks associated with both overdosing and underdosing. Dosage is selected by the veterinarian based on the susceptibility of the pathogen, the severity of the disease and their own clinical experience.
Baytril injection dosage for dogs
The parenteral dose (i.e. not oral) will be 2.5 mg of enrofloxacin per kg of the dog's weight (1.13 mg/lb). The injectable preparation of Baytril is usually only administered once at the beginning of treatment and followed with enrofloxacin in administration in tablet form thereafter, usually beginning 12 hours after the injection.
Similarly, it is important to accurately determine the weight of the animal to administer the correct dose.
Enrofloxacin overdose in dogs
Cases of enrofloxacin overdose in dogs are usually caused by accidental consumption of the drug. The best preventive measure to avoid this occurring is to keep all medications (whether for human or veterinary use) out of the reach of dogs and other domestic animals.
Accidental overdose of enrofloxacin in dogs can cause gastrointestinal disorders (with hypersalivation, vomiting and diarrhea) and affect the central nervous system (mydriasis and ataxia). Whenever you suspect a possible overdose of this or any other drug in your dog, it is important that you go to your veterinarian immediately. Where possible, indicate the active ingredient and the dose ingested. Although there is no specific antidote against enrofloxacin in dogs, your veterinarian will proceed to establish a symptomatic treatment to deal with the poisoning.
As you can see, the dosage of Baytril for dogs will depend on the individual circumstances and will need to be determined by a qualified veterinarian. Baytril is not and over-the-counter medication and should only be purchase via prescription.
Contraindications of enrofloxacin for dogs
Enrofloxacin in dogs is contraindicated in the following situations:
- Puppies or young dogs (less than 12 months in small breeds and less than 18 months in large breeds): enrofloxacin may alter the epiphyseal cartilage in still developing animals.
- Cartilaginous growth disorders: as above, since Baytril can negatively affect cartilage.
- Epilepsy: enrofloxacin can cause stimulation of the central nervous system, thereby triggering a seizure. May also affect other seizure-related disorders.
- Allergy or hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones: also other inactive substances (excipients) that may accompany the active ingredient, These commonly include lactose, starch or povidone.
- Gestation and lactation: should not be given to pregnant dogs or new mothers.
- Quinolone-resistant bacterial infections: due to bacterial strains with known resistance to quinolones, as there may be cross-resistance with enrofloxacin.
- Treatment with antibiotics: such as chloramphenicol, macrolides or tetracyclines, since co-administration with enrofloxacin may produce antagonistic effects.
- Treatment with theophylline: the simultaneous administration of enrofloxacin may delay the elimination of theophylline.
Furthermore, although not an express contraindication, enrofloxacin should be used with caution in dogs with impaired renal or hepatic function. Take a look at our article on kidney diseases in dogs to learn more.
Side Effects of Enrofloxacin for Dogs
Side effects associated with the use of Baytril and other enrofloxacin medications in dogs are rare, self-limiting, and non-serious. However, it should be mentioned that, according to the information on its technical sheet, the following may occur on rare occasions:
- Mild and transient gastrointestinal disorders: including hypersalivation, inappetence, vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia.
- Alterations of the central nervous system: leading to problems with gait and other outward signs.
- Hypersensitivity reactions: especially in allergic reactions which may cause anaphylactic shock in dogs.
- Inflammatory reactions and irritation: these can occur at the injection site, but disappear in 4 or 5 days.
To best avoid any side-effects with injectable Baytril or any other type of hypodermic administration, take a look at our article on how to give a dog a shot under the skin.
This article is purely informative. AnimalWised does not have the authority to prescribe any veterinary treatment or create a diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if they are suffering from any condition or pain.
If you want to read similar articles to Enrofloxacin for Dogs - Dosage, Uses and Side Effects, we recommend you visit our Medicine category.
- Ríos, A. M., et al. (2015). Staphylococcus multiresistant to antibiotics and its importance in veterinary medicine. Clin. Vet. Peq. Anim., 35(3), 149-161.
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