Cats Killing Birds: Separating Fact from Myth
Though the world is full of cat lovers, many people are turning against these fluffy mammals due to recent information alerting about their murderous behavior - which is causing a decrease in wildlife and bird population around the world.
Demonizing cats cannot be the answer, and knowing of all the facts to make a critical judgment is fundamental in order to understand the big picture. Keep on reading this AnimalWised article in order to know everything about cats killing birds: from the causes, the consequences to the solution.
Why do cats kill birds?
Cats are predators by nature. Thus, they will learn to hunt in order to eat and they are taught this from a very young age. The mother presents the kittens with prey in order for the kittens to eat and, as they grow, will accompany their mother to join the hunt. However, though cats can still digest meat, they don't always eat birds. Cats can also learn to hunt even if it is not for food, as they are naturally born with this instinct. This is why a cat that is being fed enough will also feel the impulse to hunt, as chasing will help the kitten's growth development and teach them to make judgments on speed, power and distance.
Female cats have the instinct of presenting prey to their kittens, which is why many spayed females will bring their owners dead prey, as they will see the human as one of their pack due to the cat's maternal instinct.
Are cats responsible for the extinction of birds?
Domestic cats are said to kill an average of 9 birds per year. It may not seem much to you, but with the high breeding speed and the increased population of feral cats (an estimate 30 million strays only in the U.S), you can do the math.
But let's take a look at real statistics, figures and reasons behind all of this.
Have cats really extinguished 33 bird species?
Cats have been cataloged as invasive species by the International Union for Conservation, as they have allegedly contributed to the extinction of 33 species, not birds, around the world. Here is a list of the birds that have become extinct due to the introduction of cats:
- The Chatham Bellbird (New Zealand)
- Chatham Fernbird (New Zealand)
- Chatham Rail (New Zealand)
- Guadalupe Caracara (Guadalupe island)
- Bonin Grosbeak (Ogasawara Island)
- North Island Snipe (New Zealand)
- Northern Flicker (Guadalupe)
- Macquaire Parakeet
- Choiseul Pigeon (Solomon Islands)
- Spotted Towhee (Guadalupe)
- Hawaiian rail (Hawaii)
- Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Mexico)
- Laughing Owl (New Zealand)
- Guadalupe Wren (Guadalupe)
- Stephens Island Wren (Stephens Island)
- South Island Piopo (New Zealand)
- Bushwren (New Zealand)
- Socorro Dove (Socorro Island)
- Bonin Thrush (Bonin Island)
As you can see, the birds that became extinct due to cats are all from islands, where cats were not native; more specifically in islands, due to the increased frailness and uniqueness of its endemic habitat. If we take a closer look, we'll see that all of these animals became extinct during the 19th century, due to the fact that it was European settlers that introduced cats, rats and dogs into the countries where these animals lived. As many of these animals lost their ability to fly due to lack of predators (especially those native to New Zealand), these birds were the easiest prey for cats.
According to a study by the Smithsonian Conservatory Biology Institute over 2.4 billion birds are killed by cats in the U.S, though cats will only kill birds during their first years of life, when they are agile enough to prance on them; which is why birds count as only 10% of their usual prey. 2 out of 3 of these birds were killed by cats that are not owned (farm,strays and colony cats), whereas the rest were killed by domesticated and owned pets. Moreover, according to biologist Roger Tabor, a cat in a village will kill an average of 14 birds whereas a cat in the city will kill 2 per year. The president of the American Bird Conservancy stated that one in three birds in America is in decline due to cat predators.
In Australia, 100 animal species are currently at threat due to the increase in feral cats, which has increased significantly since the 1960s.
If we take a look at European figures, we can see that this changes, there is no significant relationship between the two, though they have found that cats do affect birds in the heathland.
Reasons behind birds' endangerment
However, if we dig deeper into the study by the Journal of Nature Communications, we'll see that only one out of three birds are killed by owned cats. The International Weekly Journal of Science writers Kevin R.Crooks and Michael E. Soulé have linked the decline of apex predators (such as coyotes in the US) that could reduce the number of feral cats in none native countries with their increase in number. But why have bigger apex predators disappeared? According to the same study it is basically due to the decline in the predators.
The RSPCB have stated that there is not direct relationship between the decline in bird species and cats. Many birds found in gardens such as the blue tit are even increasing in number, whereas other birds that are endangered such as the skylark, tree sparrow or corn bunting does never cross paths with cats and their decline is in fact due to loss of habitat in favor of farmland.
Therefore, we can conclude that feral cats are mainly a higher risk to those countries in which cats were introduced by settlers where birds had no natural predators and that the problem has been aggravated with the decline of apex predators and the increase in cat colonies. However, this does not mean we cannot help birds survive.
How to stop cats from killing birds
As we've seen most of the problem is due to feral cats, though this does not mean that domesticated cats don't contribute to the problem.
As we've seen above, cats do not only hunt for food but for sport too, which is why neutering domestic cats will not make much difference if they are allowed outdoors, especially if they are female due to their maternal instinct.
Though common knowledge states that putting a bell on your cat will warn birds and wildlife from your cat's presence, the truth is that, according to the Mammal Society, birds are warned of the presence of a cat due to their sighting rather than sound. Moreover, it also states that cats can easily learn to walk without the bell chiming, which is why putting a bell on a cat makes no major difference in the amount of prey it catches.
Though there are known alternatives such as the cat bib, the only 100% efficient way of making sure your cat does not hunt birds is to keep your cat indoors. If you're not convinced, remember that outdoor cats have an average lifespan of 2 to 3 years, whereas indoor cats can live up to 20 if cared for properly.
How do we solve the problem of feral cats?
There have been several initiatives and ideas to stop the growing cat colonies, as they are responsible for 2/3 of bird deaths under cats' claws. In the US, the American Bird Conservancy started the "trap, neuter, release" program, where cats were neutered and released once again. However, this campaign was not effective as it did not help reduce the amount of cats in colonies significantly and were still a public health risk as they were still living on the streets in unhealthy situations.
Despite this negative result, there are plenty of cities around the globe that prove TNR is the most effective method to deal with feral cat colonies. In fact there is talk of a prohibition to abandon cats, as this is a greater problem that perpetuates colonies.
In Australia, the feral cat problem is being handled more severely, the government pledged to kill two million in order to prevent them from terminating endemic wildlife in 2015 and there are now cat-free areas, where cats were eliminated completely. In 2017, they are currently in talks to an alternative to the termination of cats, but rather the reintroduction of the Dingo as a natural predator.
As you can see, the problem does not have a solution yet, the increase of feral cats needs to find a humane solution from each country's legislation, but each individual can do their part.
Education of cat owners is highly important in order to spay and neuter their pets and teach about the dangers of abandonment so there are less cases of the sort.
But what about the hunting nature of cats? It is important to learn how to keep your cat entertained indoors with plenty of toys so it doesn't have the urge to go outside to hunt real prey.
This article is purely informative. AnimalWised does not have the authority to prescribe any veterinary treatment or create a diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if they are suffering from any condition or pain.
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