Types of Hedgehogs - A Complete Guide
Are you passionate about hedgehogs? At AnimalWised we are great lovers of this small mammal with short spikes and a pointy nose. It is an independent and beautiful animal that, without a doubt, has an adorable and unique appearance.
In this complete guide, we will review the different types of hedgehogs so you can learn about their specific physical traits, where to find them and some fun facts about them.
Keep reading this article to discover the most common types of hedgehogs and be amazed by the Erinaceidae family and everything related to them.
- European hedgehog
- Southern white-breasted hedgehog
- Northern white-breasted hedgehog
- Amur hedgehog
- Four-toed hedgehog
- North African hedgehog
- Somali hedgehog
- Southern African hedgehog
- Long-eared hedgehog
- Indian long-eared hedgehog
- Daurian hedgehog
- Hugh's hedgehog
- Desert hedgehog
- Indian hedgehog
- Brandt's hedgehog
- Bare-bellied hedgehog
- Gaoligong forest hedgehog
The European hedgehog or Erinaceus europaeus lives in various western and northern European countries such as Italy, Spain, France and the United Kingdom, among others. It is also known as "common hedgehog".
It usually measures between 20 and 30 cm (around 10 in) long, having an overall brown-black appearance, although some rare cases are blonde. The European hedgehog inhabits wooded areas, has an omnivorous diet, and can live up to 10 years.
Southern white-breasted hedgehog
The southern white-breasted hedgehog or Erinaceus concolor has a very similar appearance to the European hedgehog but differs by having a white spot on its belly or its chest. It is found in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Unlike the European hedgehog, the southern white-breasted hedgehog doesn't dig, but prefers to make a nest of grass. Otherwise, their habits are very similar.
Northern white-breasted hedgehog
The northern white-breasted hedgehog or Erinaceus roumanicus is found throughout Eastern Europe, although its presence has spread to Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus.
Although from the outside it reminds us of the common European hedgehog, like the southern one it also has a white chest. Moreover, it differs from the two previous species by its somewhat different jaw.
The Amur hedgehog or Erinaceus amurensis lives in South-Eastern Russia, Korea and China. It measures about 30 cm (12 in) long and has a pale brown appearance. Its behavior is similar to that of the common hedgehog.
The four-toed hedgehog, African pygmy hedgehog or Atelerix albiventris comes from sub-Saharan Central Africa and inhabits savanna areas and crop fields.
Their body is completely white, which emphasizes their dark head. The four-toed hedgehog has very short legs, and as its name makes clear, it only has four toes. They are smaller than other hedgehogs, at about 20 cm (8 in) long.
Four-toed hedgehogs can swim and climb, and they can be quite noisy and active.
North African hedgehog
Next on our list is the North African hedgehog or Atelerix algirus. Smaller than the previous type of hedgehog, as it tends to not surpass 20 centimeters (8 in) in length.
The North African hedgehog lives across North Africa, including Morocco and Algeria, and currently remains in the wild along the Mediterranean coast including Valencia and Catalonia. It has a light coloring and doesn't have any spines on the crown of its head.
The Somali hedgehog or Atelerix sclateri is indeed endemic to Somalia. It has a white belly ,while its legs are usually black or brown.
Southern African hedgehog
The Southern African hedgehog or Atelerix frontalis is a brownish hedgehog living in southern African countries like Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, among others.
While taking note of its black legs and overall brown tone, the Southern African hedgehog has a very distinctive white stripe on its forehead. Like most hedgehogs, the Southern African one hibernates and has an omnivorous diet mostly based on insects.
Next on the list of types of hedgehogs is the long-eared hedgehog or Hemiechinus auritus. The long-eared hedgehog is native to the Middle East, the Eastern Mediterranean and some arid areas of East Asia; it has a very wide range, but it always prefers moderate climates.
The long-eared hedgehog is noted because of its long ears and short spikes, which it prefers to release and then flee, rather than curling up into a ball as a form of defense. It is really fast, much more than the common hedgehog.
Indian long-eared hedgehog
Although its name is very similar to the previous hedgehog, the Indian long-eared hedgehog or Hemiechinus collaris is very different. It inhabits the arid regions of Pakistan and Northwestern India.
It is relatively small and has dark colors. It is interesting to note that this hedgehog performs a ritual dance to impress the female over more than one day.
The Daurian hedgehog or Mesechinus dauuricus is a lonely little hedgehog that lives in Russia and northern Mongolia. It is between 15 and 20 cm (6 to 8 in) long and is protected in those countries.
Image from combinacionanimal blog
Next on our list is Hugh's hedgehog, central Chinese hedgehog or Mesechinus hughi and it is endemic to the steppes of central China.
The desert hedgehog or Paraechinus aethiopicus is particularly small - about 15 cm (6 in) long - and very difficult to harm, as it curls itself up into a ball that protrudes its long quills in all directions. Its colors vary between dark and light.
It is found in the desert areas of North Africa and the Middle East.
The Indian hedgehog or Paraechinus micropus is native to India and Pakistan and has a patch or spot on its face like a raccoon's mask. It lives in high mountain areas where water is readily available.
It measures about 15 cm (6 in) and is quite fast, but not as fast as the long-eared hedgehog. This hedgehog also has a varied diet that includes frogs and toads.
The Brandt's hedgehog or Paraechinus hypomelas measures about 25 cm (10 in) long and has large ears and a dark body. You can find it in parts of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen. When threatened, it tends to curl itself up into a ball. However, it also uses a "jumping" attack to surprise its attackers.
We have left the bare-bellied hedgehog or Paraechinus nudiventris to last spot in our list of types of hedgehogs, as for a time it was believed that they had become extinct until recently when some were found in India.
Unfortunately, we don't have a picture of this kind of hedgehog. If you have one, please send it below in the comments section for it to be published.
17. Gaoligong forest hedgehog
Also known as the Wang's forest hedgehog, the Gaoligong forest hedgehog was only discovered in 2018, making it the 17th known extant hedgehog species. Since its recent discovery, not much is yet known. We do know its habitat is subtropical forest areas at high elevations. They hibernate nearly half the year and its population is believed to be small. Hopefully some new specimens may be hiding somewhere yet to be discovered.
Do you like hedgehogs? What is your favorite type of hedgehog?
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