Updated: September 29, 2017

The Pomeranian is a toy sized or miniature dog, that is, they are very small! Many people are thinking about adopting this wonderful long-haired dog, either because they are a hypoallergenic dog breed, because of their intelligence or because of their affectionate and noble character. They certainly make good companions that will bring you joy and happiness in day to day life.

The origins of this spitz type dog are European and perhaps for this reason they are very widespread in the United Kingdom, Spain or Germany - among many other countries in the world. To this day they have remained very popular dogs.

In this AnimalWised breedfile you will discover everything about the Pomeranian. Their origin, their character and their physical characteristics, as well as their necessary training and the most common diseases they can suffer. Let's begin!

  • Europe
  • Germany
  • Poland
FCI classification
  • Group V
Physical characteristics
  • 5-14
  • 14-18
  • 18-22
  • 22-27
  • 27-31
  • More than 31
Adult weight
  • 2-7
  • 7-22
  • 22-55
  • 55-100
  • 100-220
Life expectancy
  • 8-10
  • 10-12
  • 12-14
  • 15-20
Recommended physical activity
  • Low
  • Meidum
  • High
Recommended climate
Type of hair


  1. Origin of the Pomeranian
  2. Physical characteristics
  3. Pomeranian temperament
  4. Caring for a Pomeranian
  5. Pomeranian health
  6. Training a Pomeranian

Origin of the Pomeranian

The Pomeranian was born in an ancient duchy called Pomerania, situated between Germany and Poland. Unlike the present Pomeranian, the first specimens were of a much larger size. Basically they were used as livestock dogs: they controlled sheep, cattle and deer. Their original name was " Wolfspitz " which, translated literally, means wolf of spitz. However, they are often called Zwergspitz, Dwarf Spitz, Loulou, or, affectionately Pom

For a brief period they were also popular in Russia and Siberia where they were used as sleigh dogs. Although we have few historical references, the truth is that the pomeranian is believed to be a very widespread and popular dog in different European areas, like the UK.

They were popularized in ancient Greece and later in Rome, being the favorite dog of wealthy women. It was at this same time when the selection of certain specimens for breeding began. A small size and an affectionate and friendly character were sought after in this breed, very different from what they had initially wanted: a werewolf-like dog. Certain colors were enhanced also.

Physical characteristics

The Pomeranian is a European spitz dog, accepted by the FCI within the V group: spitz type dogs. Although we know the pomeranian as a spitz dog or spitz dwarf, their official name is still "wolfspitz".

Unlike the former pomeranians weighing about 23 kilograms, the current standard of breed is between around 1.8 and 2.5 kilograms. Therefore, as we stated, they are toy dogs or miniature.

Their coat is quite long and silky so it is essential to brush them regularly. At the moment the "puppy type cut" is very popular. This short haired cut gives them a sweet look. Many people also claim that their coat does not produce allergies, making the breed a hypoallergenic dog.

Accepted colors of this breed are mainly black, brown, white, orange, greyish and it is said that other colors can also be included. The great variety of colors is really fascinating!

Now, let's look at the different face types of the Pomeranian dog:

  • Fox Face: Shows an elongated and thin snout, similar to a fox.
  • Teddy bear: The snout is shorter and the morphology of the face is somewhat more rounded than that of its previous congener. The eyes remain close to the muzzle, giving them a very sweet appearance.
  • Doll Face: One of the most popular varieties these days. The pomeranian doll face is very similar to the teddy bear face but this one has their muzzle even more flattened and seems to show bulging eyes which are more separated. At first glance it can be very difficult to distinguish them.

Pomeranian temperament

The Pomeranian has long lost their instincts as a cattle dog. Nowadays they are very affectionate lap dogs, who hate solitude and lack of attention. They are also very active, alert, intelligent, and even curious.

The Pomeranian is a perfect dog for very different families but you must be clear on something before adopting: they will need several walks, constant attention and time from you. We must also emphasize that, sometimes, the pomeranian can be very vocal and bark a lot - so be prepared!

Their dealings with children have varied enormously over the past few generations. In the last century they were considered unsuitable for little ones since they were impatient when kids pulled their tail or hair. Sometimes they would react in an aggressive way. Currently the Pomeranian dog is more affectionate, calm and patient, but for an excellent coexistence it is important to teach children how to treat them: always in a positive way and never hurting them. Respecting the dog and leaving them alone when they grunt (grunting is a totally normal and habitual form of communication) will help us avoid any unwanted incident.

Caring for a Pomeranian

Pomeranians do not need excessive care. Just brush them regularly to remove dirt and prevent the appearance of knots in their coat. We must also take care around their eyes and clean up any discharge.

On the other hand, we emphasize that it is important to guard them against the cold, especially if we observe that they tremble, we must provide them with a jacket to go for a walk. Check out some special clothes for small dogs on AnimalWised.

Pomeranian health

If you are considering adopting a Pomeranian puppy it is very important that you know of their hair loss between 4 and 8 months of life. This is a completely normal and normal phase, and you should not worry. During this time the pomeranian loses practically all of their hair to make room for the coat they will grow in their adult stage.

On the other hand, you should know that the continued crossing of specimens from the same family can lead to serious genetic problems. This usually happens in certain breeding grounds. We encourage you to avoid breeding places and adopt a dog instead.

Eye diseases are commonly found in the spitz, especially in very elderly dogs. It is a normal condition that affects geriatric dogs.

Dislocation (incorrect position of the bone), dental discomfort or open frontanela (a problem that leaves an open skull area) are other problems that can affect this breed, albeit less common.

Taking them to the vet every six months and regularly checking their face, correct movement of the limbs and their whole body in search of protuberances, will be a way to detect any possible disease. Obviously you should also have their vaccination schedule up to date as well as deworm them internally and externally.

Training a Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is known as a very intelligent dog, so much so, at times they can become overly spoiled. We must be firm in their training and education and set some guidelines before adopting them: whether to let them on the sofa or not, when and where to eat, etc. A fixed daily routine will be a very important factor to make our pomeranian feel comfortable at home.

During the puppy stage we must actively practice socialization, a stage in which we teach our dog to relate to people, children, dogs, cats and objects. Everything that is known positively in this process, will serve them in adulthood. If done well, they will be a very sociable dog without fears. This is the basis of their education.

Once the dog begins to reach youth, proceed to initiate them in basic obedience, always using positive reinforcement. Teaching your dog to sit, to come here, to lie down or to stand still will be basic for their safety. This will also strengthen your relationship with one another.

Later you can train your Pomeranian to apply advanced commands and funny tricks. Thanks to their intelligence you will have no problem teaching them.

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How would you rate this breed?
is there any black white pomarianian?
Regina Bonite
Where can I buy it prefer boy
Jennifer Bowman
My 6 yr old pomeranian gave birth to 1 puppy at 44 days pregnant, It was dead. Could she still have the rest of the little at 63 days when her due date is.
Administrador AnimalWised
Hello Jennifer,

If one fetus was miscarried, it is still possible the other puppies will be born fine (in the vast majority of cases there is more than one fetus in the litter).
we adopted a pom 2 weeks back. It is cer. 4years old. It behaved very well for the first 10 days, easy to handle, but, apparently since we had its hair cut in a saloon (a bit too short I think), it became easily agressive, trying to bite all but my gf who takes care of it.
We are lost. What went wrong? what shld we do?
Administrador AnimalWised
Hello Lafon,

There are various reasons why your dog may have suddenly become aggressive. It will unlikely be the fact they have had their hair cut, but the experience of going to the groomers may have been traumatic. The best way is to us positive reinforcement and find ways to gain their trust, The following article provides some practical help for when a dog becomes aggressive:
Can you tell me what type of pom this is??
Debi Sippel
Wonderful site. I had a black and tan AKC registered male Pomeranian his name is Onyx and now have a redish blonde black tipped AKC registered female Pomeranian her name PomPom.
Charles Clifford
Have a puppy and am excited!
Administrador AnimalWised
Congrats Charles! Please feel free to share a pic with us here in the comments, we'd love to see them.
Photo uploaded by Glynis Crowe:I love my pomeranian.... Ms. Jazzie.
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