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Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils?

By Ameera Mills. Updated: July 8, 2019
Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils?

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In addition to body language, cats use their eyes to communicate with; us, other cats and animals of different species. For many, a feline’s gaze is one of the most mysterious. This is often due an incredibly characteristic form which their pupils take on, but, what does it mean if they are completely round?

In general, pupils of cats tend to resemble a vertical line, not a circle, so it is not surprising that when witnessing this change parents become alarmed. In this AnimalWised article we will discuss why your cat has dilated pupils, its meaning and the main causes.

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Meaning behind pupil size and shape in cats

Over the years the domestic cat has been evolving and adapting some of its natural habits, and an example of this is its hunting preference. Due to the dangers that used to lurk, the ancestors of the current cats were nocturnal animals that took advantage of the darkness of the night to feed themselves and at the same time, protect themselves from possible predators. This was greatly thanks to the anatomy of its eyes, which provides this animal with excellent night vision. For this reason, the feline dilates the pupil as much as possible in order to favor the entry of light. In addition, in the eyes there is a tissue called tapetum lucidum that, in a summarized way, allows for the the eye to absorb and retain light before reaching the retina, a fact that guarantees a much sharper vision at night.

During the day, a cat contracts its pupil and keeps it more or less closed depending on the amount of light that there is. Thus, in general, we find the pupils of cats appearing in three different forms:

  • Vertical pupil: It is contracted to avoid an excessive entry of light which can be damaging to the eye.
  • Elliptical pupil: partially dilated.
  • Round pupil: This happens when a cat’s pupil is totally dilated, mainly, in spaces or schedules of low light.

However, light entrance is not the only reason that cats contract or dilate their pupils, since in many occasions they do it as a reflex to show its state of mind or health.

Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils? - Meaning behind pupil size and shape in cats

Why does my cat have round pupils?

It is important to note that the dilation of the pupils can be due to other factors, other than light entry. Thus, the answers to why your cat has dilated pupils are numerous and can be related to reactions to health problems. Round pupils in cats can also express:

  • Excitation: when the animal is very excited and/or nervous, for example, during a game session, it is usual to see it with round or elliptical pupils. However, excitement does not always happen because of positive stimuli, since it can also occur due to stress or anxiety.
  • Satisfaction: in situations that produce happiness, the cat also dilates its pupils as a reflex. An example may be when we fill its bowl with food.
  • Fear: If the cat has dilated pupils and their eyes wide open it is a clear sign of fear.
  • Aggression: cats dilate their pupils when they stare at their prey and prepare to attack.

Although some of the causes that explain why a cat has round pupils are positive, it is important to note that thia is sometimes not healthy. If we notice dilated pupils while playing there is nothing to worry about. However, if your cat’s pupils are dilated because of stress or uncomfortability, the situation should be assessed. If your animal is feeling anxious, it is your our duty to find the reason why your animal is disturbed and treat it in order to restore emotional stability.

On the other hand, it is important to emphasize that each cat is different and can develop their own forms of communication, so dilated pupils are not always a cause for warning. It is therefore fundamental to know your feline, its character, behavior and reactions to learn how to identify a warning signal. In addition, there are breeds of cats with a predisposition to show elliptical or dilated pupils without posing an underlying problem, such as the British Shorthair cat.

Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils? - Why does my cat have round pupils?

Cats with dilated pupils due to health problems

There are certain pathologies and conditions that show pupil dilation in symptoms. If the light in the environment is normal, there are no stressors or stimulants but, your still cat has round pupils, it's time to think about his health, especially elderly. The most common conditions and diseases that show pupil dilation as a symptom are:

  • Glaucoma
  • Uveitis
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Feline leukemia virus (FelV)
  • Some types of cancer
  • Poisoning
  • Head trauma
  • Eye discomfort or injury
  • Anisocoria

Anisocoria in cats: one pupil larger than the other

Anisocoria in cats is a condition by which the animal presents unequal pupils, in such a way that one of them is more or less dilated than the other. This problem not only affects cats, since it can also occur in other animals, including humans. In certain situations this difference may be habitual, however, when the condition becomes permanent, it is not normal and we must act.

To know if the cat suffers from this problem, you must notice the most common signs. In addition to the obvious asymmetry of the pupils, another symptom of anisocoria in cats has to do with obvious eye discomfort, so it is common to see the affected animal scratching its eyes often and in different ways. Likewise, in most cases, another sign present in anisocoria is the bluish coloration of the eyes, which shows them opaque and / or reddened. It is also possible to observe the presence of sleep or abundant secretions, which do not allow to open the eye normally. All these symptoms can harm the animal's vision, so it is likely that it will collide with objects or furniture, and will walk weirdly or appear disoriented.

Anisocoria is a symptom that can develop as a result of other diseases or eye problems, such as feline leukemia, corneal ulcers or uveitis. Therefore, if your cat has dilated pupils asymmetrically, you should go to the veterinarian to out find the underlying cause and treat it accordingly.

Dilated pupils in cats due to glaucoma and other ocular pathologies

Glaucoma in cats is a disease that involves increased pressure of fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor). In cats, as well as humans,have drainage channels that, if blocked, cause the aqueous humor to accumulate. This accumulation will therefore cause the intraocular pressure to increase, causing glaucoma and other problems which can from it, such as blindness.

However, glaucoma is not an ocular condition that can cause dilation in the pupils of cats. Likewise, this pathology can also appear as a consequence of another, so it is essential to review all eye problems that are linking to the rounding of pupils;

  • Retinal detachment
  • Uveitis
  • Progressive retinal atrophy
  • Disorders of the optic nerve
  • Corneal injury
  • Ocular tumor
  • waterfalls
Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils? - Dilated pupils in cats due to glaucoma and other ocular pathologies

Cats with dilated pupils due to kidney failure

As in the cases of glaucoma or anisocoria, older cats are more likely to suffer from kidney failure. However, it is also possible to notice this pathology in younger cats, so we should not rule it out if symptoms coincide. Although it may be strange to relate renal failure with the dilation of the pupils, the truth is that there is a good justification for this comparison. When a cat suffers from renal failure, it also suffers from hypertension which, in turn, causes eye problems such as hemorrhage, retinal detachment, blindness, etc.

In addition to eye problems and pupillary dilation, the symptoms of kidney failure in cats present themselves as the following;

  • Apathy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weightloss
  • Polydipsia and polyuria (drinking and urinating a lot)
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Excessive hair loss
  • Dehydration
  • Pale mucous

If your cat has dilated pupils and isn’t moving, take note. Renal failure should be treated immediately since it is a serious condition that can end the life of an animal.If you notice two or more of these symptoms we suggest consulting your veterinarian immediately, especially if your cat is older than 7-8 years old.

Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils? - Cats with dilated pupils due to kidney failure

Tips for cleaning a cat's eyes

Despite dirt not having a direct impact on pupil size, it is always advisable to maintain good hygiene when it comes to your animal. This cleanliness of the eyes is necessary to avoid irritation or problems caused by dirt. Here are some tips:

  • If the cat produces a lot of mucuous in the eyes (sleep), they should be removed every morning with a sterile gauze and physiological serum or chamomile.
  • Have a fixed cleaning routine for your cat that you practice from when it is a kitten so that it is used to this cleaning. Don’t forget to also clean behind the ears.
  • If the hair around the eyes is too long, it should be trimmed to prevent eye penetration which can cause injury.
  • If a cat presents ocular discharge, inflammation, redness or excessive itching, it should be taken to the veterinarian as soon as possible.
Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils? - Tips for cleaning a cat's eyes

This article is purely informative. AnimalWised does not have the authority to prescribe any veterinary treatment or create a diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if they are suffering from any condition or pain.

If you want to read similar articles to Why Does My Cat Have Dilated Pupils?, we recommend you visit our Eye problems category.

Bibliography
  • TAMI, G. Lo que se esconde detrás de una mirada de gato. Affinity Petcare.
  • DESSAL, F. Manifestaciones neurológicas de enfermedades sistémicas en el gato. Gattos Centro Clínico Felino.

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dgorgo
My cat is 17 years old. He has had lab work done throughout the years. In fact, just had pre-surgical work up due to upcoming dental surgery and everything came back okay. He has had dilated pupils for quite some time. I asked my veterinarian why and she ruled out glaucoma (don't know how she came to that conclusion.) Anyhow, do you think that the dilation of pupils can be detrimental in connection with the upcoming dental surgery?
Administrador AnimalWised
Hi Dgorgo
In order to answer your question efficiently, we need to know how long have you cat’s pupils been dilated? And are they constantly dilated?
AnimalWised

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